BiographyBorn in Salzburg, Austria on Jan. 27, 1756; full name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Gottlieb Mozart; he was baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. Mozart is named after his grandfather on his mother's side and after the Saint on his date of birth, Johannes Chrysostomus. Parents: Leopold Mozart - composer and violinist, concertmaster at the archiepiscopal court, and in 1763, vice-kapellmeister at Salzburg court; and Anna Maria Pertl, daughter of Wolfgang Nikolaus Pertl, an official from Sankt Gilgen Sibling: Maria Anna (Nannerl) Mozart Age 3: started to play the keyboard Age 5: started composing minuets 1763-1766 toured Europe with his father and sister played for Louis XV at Versailles and George III in London 1764 wrote his first three symphonies; also met Johann Christian Bach By his teenage years, he mastered the piano, violin, and harpsichord 1768 completed first opera, La finta semplice (The Simple Pretense) 1769-1773 made three trips to Italy In Rome, there was a myth that Mozart attended the performance of Allegri's Misere. He wanted the score but when no one agreed he wrote down the music from memory. 1770 Mitridate, re di Ponte (Mithridates, King of Pontus) performed in Milan was Mozart's first major opera 1772 appointed concertmaster in the orchestra of Archbishop of Salzburg. During this period, he wrote many sacred works. 1777 toured with his mother hoping to find a court position; traveled to Mannheim where he met and fell in love with Aloysia Weber 1778, July Anna Maria Mozart died 1779 unable to find a court position, Mozart went back to Salzburg; appointed as court organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg 1781 resigned from his position due to increasing tension and disagreements between Mozart and the Archbishop. Mozart stayed in Vienna instead of returning to Salzburg. Mozart's resignation and his move to Vienna put a strain in his relationship with his father. 1782 married Constanze Weber in Vienna's St. Stephen's Cathedral. After Mozart's death, Constanze married Danish diplomat Georg Nikolaus von Nissen. In Vienna, Mozart supported his family by performing in public and private, teaching , and composing. His first opera written after his residency in Vienna, Abduction from Seraglio became a success. 1786 The Marriage of Figaro, the first of three operas Mozart collaborated with librettist, Lorenza da Ponte, premiered at the Burg Theater. 1787 became composer of Imperial and Royal Chamber with an annual salary of 800fl. His father, Leopold, died on May 28, 1787. Don Giovanni premiered in Prague at the National Theater. 1790 Cosi fan tutte premiered at Burg Theater. Mozart declined an opportunity to compose in London. 1791 composed dance music for the Vienna Court; publishers began to pay fees for the rights to publish his works; appointed assistant to the Cathedral Kapellmeister at St. Stephens with no pay. Mozart was already feeling ill in Prague while finishing La clemenza di Tito. Dec. 5, 1791, a few minutes before 1AM, Mozart died of rheumatic fever.
The Mozart family: Maria Anna, Mozart, painting of Anna Maria, and Leopold.
His Worksmusic in three stages: early 1761-1772 middle 1772-1781 late 1781-1791 best known works Mozart composed over 600 works including: 21 stage and opera works, 15 Masses, over 50 symphonies, 25 piano concertos, 12 violin concertos, 27 concert arias, 17 piano sonatas, 26 string quartets, and many other pieces. His style was very unique, unlike many of the musical styles of his time. People did not appreciate his radical music because they did not understand Mozart's complex and extraordinary music. In his later years, Mozart incorporates many musical elements and style from different countries into his works. His late works include three of his most famous operas, The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte, written in collaboration with Lorenza da Ponte and his last three church pieces, Mass in C Minor, Ave Verum Corpus, and Requiem. Both the Mass in C Minor and Requiem remain unfinished.
Early Works:La finta semplice (1768) Bastien und Batienne (1768) Mitridate, re di Ponto (1770)
Middle Works:Missa in C, Coronation Mass (1779)
Late Works:Idomeneo, re di Creta (1781) The Abduction from Seraglio (1782) Mass in C minor (1783) The Marriage of Figaro (1786) Don Giovanni (1787) Cosi fan tutte (1790) La Clemenza di Tito (1791) The Magic Flute (1791) Requiem (1791)
Mozart's Sacred Works
Masses and KyriesK33 Kyrie in F (1766) K90 Kyrie in d (1772) K115 Missa brevis in C (incomplete) K116 Missa brevis in F K139 Missa solemnis in c ("Waisenhaus"-1768) K167 Missa in C ("Holy Trinity"-1773) K192 Missa brevis in F ("Little Credo"-1775) K220 Missa brevis in C ("Sparrow"-1773-1777) K257 Missa in C ("Credo"-1776-1777) K258 Missa brevis in C ("Piccolomini"-1775) K259 Missa brevis in C ("Organ solo"-1773-1777) K262 Missa longa in C (1775) K275 Missa brevis in B-flat (1773-1777) K296a-c Mass (fragments-1777-1778) K317 Missa in C ("Coronation"-1779) K337 Missa solemnis in C (1780) K341 Kyrie in d (1781) K427 Mass in C (1783)
Litanies and VespersK109 Litaniae Lauretanae BVM (1771) K125 Kitaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento in B-flat (1772) K193 Dixit and Magnificat (1773-1777) K243 Kitaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento (1773-1777) K321 Vesperae de Dominica (1779) K339 Vesperae de solennes de Confessore (1780)
Short Sacred WorksK34 Offertory ("Scande coeli limina") K85 Miserere (1770) K86 Antiphon ("Quaerite primum regnum Dei"-1770) K108 "Regina coeli" in C (1771) K127 "Regina coeli" in B-flat (1772) K165 Motet, "Exsultate, jubilate" (1773) K222 Offertory, Misericordias Domini (1773-1777) K260 Offertory in D, "Venite, populi" (1773-1777) K273 Sancta Maria in F (1773-1777) K277 Offertory, "Alma Dei creatoris" (1773-1777) K618 Motet, "Ave verum corpus" (1791)
Church SonatasK67 Church Sonata in E-flat (1772) K68 Church Sonata in B-flat (1772) K69 Church Sonata in D (1772) K328 Church Sonata in C (1779) K329 Church Sonata in C (1779) K336 Church Sonata in C (1779)
Historical Setting of the Requiem
Mozart and ConstanzeDuring the late 1790, Mozart had many financial problems contributed by the following factors. i. decline in popularity from 1788 in Vienna ii. subscription concerts - from success in 1785 to only one subscriber iii. no savings from his most successful years 1785-86 iv. steady increase in popularity in foreign countries. "His music was now circulating via performances and publications throughout Europe, especially in German-speaking regions and in France, where his words were frequently listed on the programs of the Concert Spirituel." (Maynard Solomon) However, there were no performance rights or copyright laws. Composer paid only for his service of physically playing or conducting what he composed. v. Constanze's numerous pregnancies and her health vi. numerous expenses for appearances at court functions vii. supported a household of six including his son, Karl Thomas, the expected baby, Franz Xaver Wolfgang, and two servants.
Karl and Franz Xaver Mozart: 1798-99.However, during his last year, he slowly began to experience a reversal of fortune. i. gradually middle class society and Schikaneder theatre vs. court opera and aristocratic salon ii. relationship with his wife - loving, affectionate, and concerned with Constanze's health iii. an offer to go to London by British opera manager Robert May O'Reilly iv. May - became unpaid assistant to the cathedral kapellmeister at St. Stephen's. If Mozart lived for more than two years, he would have been the next kapellmeister with salary of 2000 fl. v. late 1791, offers from Dutch and Hungarian nobility to compose a few works vi. fees were received by Mozart for the publication and manuscript rights to some of his works
History of the Requiem (timeline)Feb. 14, Herr Franz, Count von Walsegg's wife passed away at the age of 20. mid July, messenger (Franz Anton Leitgeb, Count's steward) arrived with note asking Mozart to write a Requiem Mass; fee and time; response by messenger bring the advance fee mid July, commission from Domenico Guardasoni, Impresario of the Prague National Theater to compose the opera, La clemenza di Tito, for the festivities surrounding the coronation on Sept. 6 of Leopold II as King of Bohemia August, works mainly on La clemenza di Tito; complete by Sept. 5 in 18 days Aug. 25, Mozart leaves for Prague; messenger reappears; in Prague already started felling ill Sept. 6, Mozart conducts premiere of La clemenza di Tito mid Sept. to Sept. 28 revision and completion of The Magic Flute Sept. 30, premiere of The Magic Flute Oct. 7, completed Concerto in A for Clarinet Oct. 8 - Nov. 20, worked on the Requiem and a Cantata Nov. 20, confined to the bed due to his illness Dec. 5, shortly after midnight Mozart died of acute rheumatic fever Dec. 7, officially the 6th, buried in St. Marx Cemetery Dec. 10, Requiem performed in St. Michael for a memorial for Mozart by Freihaus theater early Mar. 1792, probably the time Sussmayer finished the Requiem evidence: Constanze signed a contract on Mar. 4, 1792, giving King Frederick William II a copy of the Requiem Jan. 2, 1793, performance of Requiem for Constanze's benefit arranged by Gottfried van Swieten early Dec. 1793, the Requiem was delivered to the Count Dec. 14 1793, Requiem performed in the memory of his wife in the church at Wiener-Neustadt Feb. 14, 1794, Requiem performed again in the memory of his wife in Patronat Church at Maria-Schutz on Semmering 1799, Breitkopf & Hartel published the Requiem 1825, Gottfried Weber wrote an article saying the Requiem was complete forgery based on Sussmayer's 1801 letter to the newspaper 1825-present, debates about who contributed what 1833, Eybler died of a stroke while conducting a performance of Mozart's Requiem
Requiem's CommissionerThe Requiem was commissioned by Count Walsegg. The true and accurate details of his request for a Requiem did not surface until 1964 when Otto Erich Deutsch found the manuscript by Anton Herzog, who at the time of the commission was under the services of the Count. Herzog describes the Count as a very loving husband and as a man with great interests in music. "He was a passionate lover of music and the theatre; hence every week, on Tuesdays and Thursdays, each time fully three hours' long, quartets were played and on Sundays theatre, in which latter Herr Count himself, and Madame Countess and her unmarried Madame Sister, took part, as did all the officials and the entire, numerous household, all of whom had to play roles, each according to his or her capacities."(Herzog Anton) Since private concerts were held so often, the Count wanted many different musical pieces to be performed during his Tuesday and Thursday sessions. The Count obtained many of these works by commissioning well known composers. After receiving the commissioned work he would recopy it in his own handwriting never noting the true composer. "The secretly organized scores he generally copied out in his own hand, and presented them for the parts to be copied out. We never saw an original score. The quartets were then played, and we had to guess who the composer was. Usually we suggested it was the Count himself, because from time to time he actually composed some small things; he smiled and was pleased that we (as he thought) had been mystified; but we were amused that he took us for such simpletons. We were all young, and thought this an innocent pleasure which we gave our lord. And in such fashion the mystifications continued among us for some years."(Herzog Anton) After Count Walsegg's wife died, he wanted to have two special memorials in her honor. One was a sculpture. The other was the Requiem, which was to be played annually on the anniversary of his wife's death. The Requiem was finally performed in a memorial for the Count's wife on December 14, 1793.
Requiem Masstext from the Requiem Mass in Latin 15 movements A. Requiem 1. Requiem - chorus, soprano solo, chorus B. Kyrie 2. Kyrie - choral C. Sequence 3. Dies irae - choral 4. Tub mirum - bass, tenor, alto, soprano, four soloists together 5. Rex tremendae - choral 6. Recordare - solo quartet 7. Confutatis 8. Lacrimosa - choral D. Offertory 9. Domine Jesu - choral 10. Domine Hostias - choral E. Sanctus 11. Sanctus - choral F. Benedictus 12. Benedictus - solo quartet G. Agnus Dei 13. Agnus Dei - choral H. Communion 14. Lux aeterna - solo soprano, choral 15. Cum sanctis tuis - choral four vocal parts: soprano, contralto, tenor, bass -Mozart produces a new kind of sacred music where the focus is on the vocal parts. -"He deals with the four-part setting as a whole, he lets it unfold in phrases and sections, he never singles out one voice over a longer period."(Christoph Wolff) instruments: 2 basset horns, 2 bassons, 2 trumpets, timpani, 3 trombones, strings (included violins I and II, violas, cellos, and contrabasses), and organ total time: approximately 50 minutes many different versions 1. Mozart & Sussmayer's version 2. Franz Beyer's version - editted the first version According to Robin Golding, Beyer "cleansed the score of Sussmayer's faulty harmonic realisations and his often insensitive scoring." 3. Richard Maunder's version - Sanctus and Benedictus are omitted, Lacrimosa from measure 9 to 30 is replaced by music from the Requiem movement starting from the solo soprano part, and an Amen fugue discovered a few decades ago is added after the Lacrimosa.
Autograph draft scores(in Mozart's handwriting) - all donated to Imperial Library in Vienna
Autograph score of the Requiem:Kyrie.early 1830's, Abbe Stadler - All five of the six movements for Sequence except Lacrimosa claims to have received it from 'Jemand' as a gift 1833. Joseph Eybler - Lacrimosa, Domine Jesu, Domine Hostias claims to have received it from Georg Nikolaus Nissen 1838, Count Walsegg - 'original' full score of the complete Requiem First two movements are Mozart's handwriting, while the rest is in Sussmayer's handwriting, quite similar to Mozart's received from Constanze
Autograph score of Requiem: Dies irae.
Compositional processAfter Mozart's death, Constanze tried to find composers to finish the Requiem. The order in which Constanze asked the composers are as follows: 1. Freystadtler (30 yrs old) 2. Eybler (26 yrs old) - Dec. 21, 1791 receives material from Constanze 3. Stadler (43 yrs old) - an old family friend, not a student 4. Sussmayer Sussmayer's version the story - Before Constanze gave the score to him, she had already asked several other composers, but they all had other obligations or did not want to work on the piece. - Constanze finally gave it to Sussmayer because Mozart had discussed in detail the finished movements, including the orchestration, with Sussmayer. They had also played and sang what was completed before Mozart's death. - Mozart finished the four-part vocal score, the instrumental bass all the way to the end of the Offertory, except Lacrimosa, which was only finished through the eighth measure, and the motivic portions of instrumentation. - Sussmayer stated that he finished the Lacrimosa and composed Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei. - For the last two movements, he used the music from the first two movements. After Sussmayer finished the piece, two copies were made. One was sent to Breitkopf & Hartel, for publishing. The other copy remained in Constanze's possession. The 'original' with only the first two movements in Mozart's handwriting was sent to Count Walsegg.
|movements||composers who contributed|
|Requiem||Requeim||composed by Mozart|
|Kyrie||Kyrie||composed by Mozart ecxept the Colla-parte accompaniment, which was written by Franz Jacob Freystadler|
|Sequence||Dies irae||Mozart finished the four part vocal score, the instrumental bass, and the motivic portions of the instrumentation||Joseph Eybler wrote the instrumentation; later Sussmayer copies Eybler's instrumentation with some minor revisions|
|Tub mirum||sam as above||same as above|
|Rex tremendae||same as above||same as above|
|Recordare||same as above||same as above|
|Confutatis||same as above||same as above|
|Lacrimosa||Mozart finished only through the eighth measure||Joseph Eybler write the instrumentation for mm. 9-10; Sussmayer wrote the instrumentation for mm.1-8 and composed mm. 9-30|
|Offertory||Domine Jesu||Mozart finished the four-part vocal score, the instrumental bass, and the motivic portions of the instrumentation||Abbe Stadler might have worked on the instrumentation; Sussmayer wrote the instrumentation or used Stadler's with some revisions|
|Domine Hostias||same as above||same as above|
|Agnus Dei||Agnus Dei||Sussmayer's composition, but here he may have used some of Mozart's drafts**|
|Communion||Lux aeterna||Requiem composition measures 23-52 by Mozart are reused; adjusted slightly for the different text|
|Cum sanctis tuis||Kyrie composition mm. 1-52 by Mozart is reused; adjusted slightly for the different text|
|**There has been many criticisms of Sussmayer's contributions. The main criticism is focused on Sanctus and Benedictus. However, with Agnus Dei, Wolff believes that it "juxtaposes a highly balanced and, in terms of rhetorical intensity, extremely effective four-part vocal setting and a complementary instrumental motif, exactly according to the manner of, for instance, the 'Domine Jesu'." Many speculate that Constanze gave Sussmayer drafts that Mozart had been working on. Some of these may have contained instructions or preliminary vocal ideas for not only Agnus Dei but also Sanctus and Benedictus. (these drafts were mentioned by Constanze in a letter to Stadler in 1827.)|
Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) Text
RequiemRequiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, Grant them eternal rest, O Lord, et lux perpetua luceat eis. and may perpetual light shine on them. Te decet hymnus, Deus, in Sion, Thou, O God, art praised in Sion, et tibi reddetur votum in Jerusalem. and unto Thee shall the vow Exaudi orationem meam, be performed in Jerusalem. ad te omnis caro veniet. Hear my prayer, unto Thee shall all Requiem aeternam dona eis, Dimine, flesh come. et lux perpetua luceat eis. Grant them eternal rest, O Lord, and may perpetual light shine on them.
KyrieKyrie eleison. Lord have mercy upon us. Christe eleison. Christ have mercy upon us. Kyrie eleison. Lord have mercy upon us.
SequentiaDies irae, dies illa Day of wrath, that day Solvet saeclum in favilla, Will dissolve the earth in ashes Teste David cum Sibylla. As David and the Sibyl bear witness. Quantus tremor est futurus What dread there will Quando judex est venturus When the Judge shall come Cuncta stricte discussurus. To judge all things strictly. Tuba mirum spargens sonum A trumpet, spreading a wondrous sound Per sepulcra regionum Through the graves of all lands, Coget omnes ante thronum. Will drive mankind before the throne. Mors stupebit et natura Death and Nature shall be astonished Cum resurget creatura When all creation rises again Judicanti responsura. To answer to the Judge. Liber scriptus proferetur A book, written in, will be brought In quo totum continetur, forth Unde mundus judicetur. In which is contained everything that is Out of which the world shall be judged. Judex ergo cum sedebit When therefore the Judge takes His seat Quidquid latet apparebit, Whatever is hidden will reveal itself. Nil inultum remanebit. Nothing will remain unavenged. Quid sum miser tunc dicturus, What then shall I say, wretch that I am Quem patronum rogaturus, What advocate entreat to speak for me, Cum vix justus sit securus? When even the righteous may hardly be secure? Rex tremendae majestatis, King of awful majesty, Qui salvandos salvas gratis, Who freely savest the redeemed, Salve me, fons pietatis. Save me, O fount of goodness. Recordare, Jesu pie, Remember, blessed Jesus, Quod sum causa tuae viae, That I am the cause of Thy pilgrimage, Ne me perdas illa die. Do not forsake me on that day. Quaerens me sedisti lassus, Seeking me Thou didst sit down weary, Redemisti crucem passus, Thou didst redeem me, suffering death Tantus labor non sit cassus on the cross. Let not such toil be in vain. Juste judex ultionis Just the avenging judge, Donum fac remissionis Grant remission Ante diem rationis. Before the day of reckoning. Ingemisco tamquam reus, I groan like a guilty man. Culpa rubet vultus meus, Guilt reddens my face. Supplicanti parce, Deus. Spare a suppliant, O God. Qui Mariam absolvisti Thou who didst absolve Mary Magdalene Et latronem exaudisti, And didst hearken to the thief, Mihi quoque spem dedisti. To me also hast Thou given hope. Preces meae non sunt dignae, My prayers are not worthy, Sed tu bonus fac benigne, But Thou I Thy merciful goodness grant Ne perenni cremer igne. That I burn not in everlasting fire. Inter oves locum praesta, Place me among Thy sheep Et ab haedis me sequestra, And seperate me from the goats, Statuens in parte dextra. Setting me on Thy right hand. Confutatis maledictis When the accursed have been confounded Flammis acribus addictis, And given over to the bitter flames, Voca me cum benedictis. Call me with the blessed. Oro supplex et acclinis, I pray in supplication on my knees. Cor contritum quasi cinis, My heart contrite as the dust, Gere curam mei finis. Safeguard my fate. Lacrimosa dies illa Mournful that day Qua resurget ex favilla When from the dust shall rise Judicandus homo reus. Guilty man to be judged. Huic ergo parce, Deus, Therefore spare him, O God. Pie Jesu Domine, Merciful Jesus, Lord Dona eis requiem. Grant them rest.
OffertoriumDomine, Jesu Christe, Rex gloriae, Lord Jesus Christ, King of glory, libera animas omnium fidelium deliver the souls of all the faithful defunctorum departed from the pains of hell and de poenis inferni, et de profundo lacu: from the bottomless pit. libera eas de ore leonis, Deliver them from the lion's mouth. ne absorbeat eas tartarus, ne cadant Neither let them fall into darkness in obscurum, nor the black abyss swallow them up. sed signifer sanctus Michael And let St. Michael, Thy standard- retraesentet eas in lucem sanctam, bearer, lead them into the holy light quam olim Abrahae promisisti which once Thou didst promise et semini ejus. to Abraham and his seed. Hostias et preces, tibi, Domine, We offer unto Thee this sacrifice laudis offerimus; of prayer and praise. tu suscipe pro animabus illis, Receive it for those souls quarum hodie memoriam facimus: whom today we commemorate. fac eas, Domine, de morte transire ad Allow them, O Lord, to cross vitam, from death into the life quam olim Abrahae promisisti which once Thou didst promise to et semini ejus. Abraham and his seed.
SanctusSanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Holy, holy, holy, Dominus Deus Sabaoth! Lord God of Sabaoth Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua. Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Osanna in excelsis. Hosanna in the highest.
BenedictusBenedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Blessed is He who cometh in the name of Osanna in excelsis. the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.
Agnus DeiAgnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of dona eis requiem. the world, grant them rest. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of dona eis requiem sempiternam. the world, grant them everlasting rest.
CommunionLux aeterna luceat eis, Domine, May eternal light shine on them, O Lord cum sanctis tuis in aeternum, with Thy saints for ever, quia pius es. because Thou art merciful. Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, Grant the dead eternal rest, O Lord, et lux perpetua luceat eis, and may perpetual light shine on them. cum santis tuis in aeternum, with Thy saints for ever, quia pius es. because Thou are merciful.
Much of what is known today about Mozart comes either directly from correspondences about him, to him, and from him, or indirectly from biographers who gathered information from interviews with people close to him, such as his wife, Constanze, his works, and material from people who have come in contact with Mozart. The following is a brief summary of the early biographers who have tried to tell the story of Mozart's life. 1. Friedrich Schlichtegroll was a teacher and a scholar. Published Mozart's obituary in 1793. This obituary was part of a volume of obituaries referred to as Nekrolog. The two had never met. Most of the information was obtained from Nannerl, Mozart's sister, and Johann Andreas Schachtner, a friend of the family in Mozart's early years. Therefore what Schlichtegroll knew and wrote about was the period before Vienna. 2. Franz Xaver Niemetschek was a citizen of Prague, a teacher and writer. Unlike Schlichtegroll, Niemetschek did neet with Mozart and was acquainted with Mozart's friends in Prague. After the death of Mozart, Constanze sent Carl, the elder son, to live with him from 1792-97. Through these relationships with the family, Niemetschek gathered the information needed to write a biography of Mozart. His main source was Constanze and Mozart's friends in Prague. Therefore his emphasis was on Mozart's years in Vienna and his many trips to Prague. 3. Friedrich Rochlitz was the editor of Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitwig (AMZ), a journal, which was published by Breitkopf & Hartel. Constanze had sent Rochlitz some ancedotes to publish. At first she wanted him to do a biography but after meeting Nissen, she gave Nissen the opportunity instead. Most people believed that Rochlitz is an unreliable source. 4. ITFC Arnold, a novelist, wrote Mozarts Geist, published in 1803. He takes most of the biography directly from the three sources already published. He does add in some new information. 5. In 1828, Nissen published a biography of Mozart which included an appendix written by Constanze and J.H. Fewerstein after Nissen's death in 1826. Much of this biography included what had been previously written by Schlichtegroll, Niemetschek, and Rochlitz. In The Mozart's Myths, Stafford writes: "Sometimes Nissen corrects the chunks he borrows, and occasionally he tells the reader that he has done this...unfortunately, he does not always correct and revise in this way. Assembling his narrative with scissors and paste, he allows contradictions to creep in." Nissen, knowing that it was untrue, wrote that the unfinished Requiem was taken by the messenger immediately after Mozart's death. 6. Vincent and Mary Novello's diary of their interviews during 1829 with Nannerl, Constanze, and Mozart's sister in law, was discovered and published in 1955. They were collecting this information in hopes of publishing a book, which never happened. Since almost forty years had gone by since Mozart's death, then these accounts might have been based more on already published biographies than on the participants' own memories.
Mass in C Minor
Autograph score of the Mass in C Minor: Kyrie.The Mass in C minor was not a commissioned work. Since most of Mozart's work was written for money or for advancement in positions, then one wonders why he worked on this particular piece. "For example, the clavier music was written mainly for performance or for teaching purposes; the operas were written in response to specific commissions or occasionally in the hope of a production; the symphonies, for a variety of uses, including, in later years, as showpieces of his capabilities; the orchestral dances, to fulfill his obligations as imperial chamber composer and to earn publication fees; the Salzburg church music, in connection with his responsibilities to the court; the Requiem, to Count Walsegg's order; and the wind instrument concertos, for specific virtuoso players."(Maynard Solomon) He probably composed this piece to express his love for his wife as well as to reconcile with his family, Leopold and Nannerl. As Maynard Solomon writes,"It is a peace offering, which aims to demonstrate Mozart's piety and to heal the family rift, thus to achieve reconciliation with his fater and sister. At the same time it is a token of his marriage to Constanze, his gift of love to her, the expression of his gratitude to God for having granted him this sacred union and blessed it with a child. It is written to glorify Constanze; it is her Magnificat." The composition of the Mass was exactly the opposite of the type of Mass the Archbishop of Salzburg directed. In June 1780, the Archbishop wrote that he wanted to eliminate complex forms of church music. In addition, after his reforms, the Salzburg style became limited to no longer than 45 minutes and no solo singing or fugue was permitted. This Mass was quite different then the Salzburg style. Not only did the Mass use baroque, classical, Salzburg, Viennese, and Italian music, but it was also longer than 45 minutes. He started composing the Mass during late 1782. It premiered in October 26, 1783 in St. Peter's Church. Constanze sang a solo part. Since the piece was not completed yet, Mozart used sections from his earlier masses to supplement the missing parts. The Mass includes Kyrie, Gloria, Credo (completed only to Et incarnatus), and incomplete drafts of Sanctus and Benedictus. The four solo vocal parts are soprano I, soprano II, tenor, and bass. The instruments include: 2 bassoons, flute, 2 horns, 2 oboes, timpani, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, strings, and organ. Even though this work was never finished, parts of the music were used later on in Mozart's Davidde penitente, a cantata.
BibliographyLandon, H.C. Robbins. Mozart's 1791 Last Year Solomon, Maynard. Mozart: A Life. Stafford, William. The Mozart Myths. Wolff, Christoph. Composition and Completion of the Requiem.
Mozart Web Page Sites
1. http://www.vivanet.com/~sboerner Titled The Mozart Project. This is a great place to find all types of information on Mozart. From this page you can access What's New about the Mozart Project and an entire chronology of Mozart's life. There are also notes and reviews of books that deal with Mozart. 1a. http://www.vivanet.com/~sboerner/comp.k_626_htm Requiem in D minor 1b. http://www.vivanet.com/~sboerner/comp.k_368a_htm What's New 2. http://www.spb.su//lifestyl/138/requiem.html Titled Mozart's Requiem by Karl P Henning 3. http://pathfinder.com/@@p*6ccuMyyAlAQE25/time/magazine/domestic/ 1995/950: Titled Myth of the Divine Child by Michael Walsh A review of Maynard Solomon's book, Mozart. 4. http://www.roughguides.com/RG_WWW/C_music/cla_Moz.html The Rough Guide to Classical Music Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 4a. http://www.roughguides.com/RG_WWW/C_music/Moz_sac.html Sacred Music 5. http://www.mhrcc.org/mozart/mozart.html Index to most Mozart sites on the Web Biographies: 6. http://plaza.interport.net/nyopera/education/mozart.html New York City Opera Biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 7. http://classicalmus.com/composers/mozart.html Classics World Biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 8. http://www.ida.his.se/ida/~a94johal/mozart.html Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Johan Alkerstedt 9. http://www.demon.co.uk/creative/fairfield/mozart.html Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Creative Pitch 10. http://www.hk.super.net/~naxos/mozart_w.htm First it has a brief biography of Mozart. Then it goes into the following subtopics with recommended recordings: operas, church music, vocal and choral music, orchestral music, cassations, divertimenti, serenades, dance music, concertos, chamber music, piano music, and organ music. 11. http://www.glasscity.net/~omoral/mozart.html Mozart: A tribute to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Contains Biography, Compositions, Musical Samples, and Recordings. 11a. http://www.glasscity.net/~omoral/biography.html Mozart's Biography 12. http://weber.u.washington.edu/~sbode/music/german1.html Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart by Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc. 13. http://www.edinboro.edu/CWIS/Music/Cordell/comp-Mozart.html Requiem Text: 14. http://copper.ucs.indiana,edu/~lneff/libretti.mreqlat.txt Requiem text in Latin 15. http://emerald.yonsei.ac.kr/~nyang/requiem Requiem Mass text in various languages