his undergraduate degree from MIT, and his Ph.D. from U. C. Berkeley
in 1982. He was a Presidential Young Investigator, he received
an IBM Faculty Development Award and a Jacob Wallenberg Scholarship.
More recently, he
won the 2010 TMS EMPMD Distinguished Scientist Award, the.
2016 William Hume-Rothery Award of TMS, and was elected Fellow of the
Neutron Scattering Society of America in 2016.
He serves on review boards of the Advanced Photon Source and the NIST Center for Neutron Research.
He consulted for an electronics testing company, Everett Charles Technologies,
for the Defense Science Board, was a member of the Science Advisory
Board of Actium Materials and Contour Energy, and is now on the Science Board of the Materials Project. Fultz has authored or co-authored approximately
With his friend, Prof. J. Howe of Univ. Virginia,
Fultz published a graduate-level textbook
on diffraction and microscopy of materials (now in its fourth English edition, first Russian edition, and under translation into Chinese).
More recently, Fultz authored a graduate-level textbook on phase transitions in materials
that unifies concepts from traditional materials science and from condensed-matter physics.
X-ray and neutron scattering are two of the most important methods for
studying materials, and the U.S. community of scattering scientists now
has access to remarkably powerful and precise synchrotrons and neutron sources.
These require innovative hardware and software for new studies of materials.
Brent Fultz was the Principal Investigator of
the ARCS spectrometer project at the
Neutron Source, in operation since 2007.
Scientific computing offers opportunities for doing new science with neutron scattering experiments, and
Brent Fultz was the Principal Investigator of the software project Distributed Data Analysis for Neutron Scattering Experiments, DANSE . Other national opportunities are described in reports available for download on this website.
of Fultz's research is how atom vibrations in solids affect the entropy
and free energy of materials -- a review article is available here (4.5 MB).
Vibrations are the main source of entropy of solid materials. They are quantized as "phonons," which we measure by inelastic neutron scattering. Inelastic neutron scattering is also sensitive to magnetic
and electronic excitations in solids, and
these excitations can have thermodynamic importance, too.
An important scientific challenge is to identify the reasons why different materials have different phonon entropies, and how phonon entropy changes with temperature and pressure.
Recent work has focused on behavior over a broad range of temperature, where phonons interact with other phonons, and with electronic excitations.
Future work will emphasize new effects that arise with simultaneous temperature and pressure.
Modern ab initio computations based on density functional theory are now essential for work on phonons and electrons in solids.
For efficiency in understanding the contributions to thermodynamics, high pressure research is generally easier by computation, and high temperature work is generally easier by experiment. Nevertheless,
at high temperatures, the
quasiparticle excitations of phonons and electrons can be
studied computationally by ab initio molecular dynamics.
Using high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering, Fultz's group has also been measuring how
vibrational thermodynamics is altered when the material is under megabar pressures in a diamond anvil cell.
The global "energy problem" is
of paramount societal importance, and of some urgency.
Research on energy-storage materials can help.
For many years Fultz's group has worked on materials that
store lithium (used in rechargeable batteries),
and on materials that store hydrogen.
One effort is focused
on understanding the interactions of hydrogen molecules with
surfaces, with the goal of learning how to
hydrogen-storage potential of new materials that store
hydrogen by adsorption interactions.
For materials that store lithium or sodium ions,
Fultz's group found an opportunity to use nuclear resonant
scattering on materials at sub-megabar pressures
to measure the atom distortions that occur as
an electron hops between adjacent ions.
The mechanism of "small-polaron hopping"
is the source of electrical conductivity of many battery materials that
are otherwise insulators at low temperatures. Understanding
polaron dynamics should open possibilites for many more electrode
materials in rechargeable batteries.
of recent research results are given in the Fultz
Fultz's interview for the Distinguished Scientist Award, with thoughts for young scientists, is here.