Encyclopedia and Dictionary Entries

            I spend more time than I should trying to compress knowledge clearly in such works. Collected here, they may be of use to different audiences than in their published versions.  These are the entries as I wrote them, not after editors made small changes.


Disfranchisement" [33 kb],“Election Laws " [30 kb], “Grandfather Clause" [26 kb], “Jim Crow" [35 kb], Plessy v. Ferguson" [36 kb],Reitman v. Mulkey" [31 kb], “Voter Registration" [36 kb], “Voter Residency Requirements" [27 kb], and “Voting" [41 kb], in Dictionary of American History (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, forthcoming)


Enclosure/Fence Laws" [20 kb], in Encyclopedia of Appalachia (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, forthcoming).


Voting Districts and Minority Representation" [47 kb], in Encarta Africana (2nd ed., Microsoft Corp., 2000).


Reapportionment" [57 kb] and “Voting Rights" [44 kb], in Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, Supplement II (New York: Macmillan, 2000).


Reconstruction" [36 kb], in The Oxford Companion to United States History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001).


Poll Tax" [47 kb], in The International Encyclopedia of Elections (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1999), 208-09.


Cumming v. Richmond County  [64 kb],” “Grandfather Clause [53 kb],” and “ Guinn v. U.S. [87 kb],” in Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

Voting” [170 kb] in Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, (Chapel Hill:                University of North Carolina Press, 1989), 1179-81.


Suffrage" [3500 kb], in Jack P. Greene, ed., Encyclopedia of American Political History (NewYork: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1984), III, 1236-58.


Disfranchisement [279 kb],” “Grandfather Clause [67 kb],” and “Williams v. Mississippi [73 kb],” in David C. Roller and Robert W. Twyman, eds., Encyclopedia of Southern History (Baton Rouge: L.S.U. Press, 1979).