Nobel Prize

Research Themes
Historical Overview Historical Overview
Center for Ultrafast Science & Technology

Laboratory for Molecular Sciences


Research Family

Global Issues and Science Education


Research Themes

Selected Animations

In 1872 railroad magnate Leland Stanford wagered $25,000 that a galloping horse, at some point in stride, lifts all four hooves off the ground. To prove it, Stanford employed English photographer Eadweard Muybridge. After many attempts, Muybridge developed a camera shutter that opened and closed for only two thousandths of a second, enabling him to capture on film a horse flying through air (see movie on the left; note that temporal resolution of a stationary image on the right is not sufficient to resolve the details of the motion). One hundred years later, motions of atoms were observed on their native timescales. Today, we can directly observe the atomic motions in both space and time (see animations below).