Amnesty International Group 22 Pasadena/Caltech News Volume XIX Number 8, August 2011 UPCOMING EVENTS Thursday, August 25, 7:30 PM. Monthly Meeting. Note new location at Avery Center. See Coordinator's Column for more info. Help us plan future actions on Sudan, the 'War on Terror', death penalty and more. Tuesday, September 13, 7:30 PM. Letter writing meeting at Caltech Athenaeum, corner of Hill and California in Pasadena. This informal gathering is a great way for newcomers to get acquainted with Amnesty! Sunday, September 18, 6:30PM. Rights Readers Human Rights Book Discussion group. This month we read "Enemies of the People" by Kati Marton. COORDINATOR'S CORNER Hi everyone Thanks a million to Lucas, Joyce, and Stevi for doing the coordinator's column and putting the newsletter together for July. It looked great! We were on vacation, a combo plane and car trip to the Southeastern US. We had a great time and visited 10 cities and 7 states in 12 days! High- lights were the swamp tour in Louisiana, the Smokey Mountains National Park (mama and bear cubs sighting!!), the Emerald Coast of Florida, Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, S. Carolina. PLEASE NOTE: The location for our August 25th monthly meeting has changed - see the updated website. http://www.its.caltech.edu/~aigp22/map.shtml Here's the description: For August 2011 only, our meeting room has changed to the conference room of Avery Center at the southwest corner of Del Mar and Holliston. There is parking on Holliston or in the parking lots off of Chester, just south of Del Mar. Entrance to Avery is from the walkway south of it and the conference room is on the 2nd floor, there is an elevator in the foyer. Con carino, Kathy RIGHTS READERS Human Rights Book Discussion Group Keep up with Rights Readers at http://rightsreaders.blogspot.com Next Rights Readers meeting: Sunday, Sept. 18, 6:30 PM Vroman's Bookstore 695 E. Colorado Boulevard In Pasadena Enemies of the People By Kati Marton About the Author Kati Marton, an award-winning former NPR and ABC News correspondent, is the author of Hidden Power: Presidential Marriages That Shaped Our History, a New York Times bestseller, as well as Wallenberg, The Polk Conspiracy, A Death in Jerusalem, and a novel, An American Woman. Mother of a son and a daughter, she lives in New York and was married to Richard Holbrook. BOOK REVIEW by ALAN FURST Published: October 30, 2009,New York Times The year is 1955; most of the world has taken sides in the cold war. In Budapest, behind the Iron Curtain, a little girl, 6 years old, lives one of the more privileged lives in that city. In an apartment on a tree-lined street on one of Buda's hills, she is adored by her attractive parents, prominent journalists; she wears pink sweaters and cute shoes - patent leather Mary Janes - from America; she loves going to school; she loves her playmates. But then, on an icy February night at 2 in the morning, the light goes on in the room she shares with her sister and life changes forever. ENEMIES OF THE PEOPLE My Family's Journey to America By Kati Marton Excerpt: 'Enemies of the People' (November 1, 2009) "'Get into our bed,' my mother said. As we slowly awoke, one of the searchers moved in. Like a hunter stalking big game, he sank his knife into our beat-up stuffed rocking horse. Straw spilled out of my oldest possession, as my sister and I ran to the room next door and dove into our parents' bed. We were too dazed to ask where Papa was. Or did we know somehow? 'Elvittek,' Hungarian for 'they took him away,' was a word I often heard as a child. . . . So now my father had been elvittek, taken away." Four months later, her mother was also elvittek. Taken away. To many in Budapest, this would come as no surprise. Endre and Ilona Marton were a high- profile couple, intellectual celebrities. He was the Associated Press correspondent in Budapest, she reported for the rival U.P. Almost all foreign journalists had been forced to leave Hungary, but the Martons, Hungarians who spoke and wrote near-native English, seemed invulnerable. Endre Marton dressed well, smoked a pipe, drove a white Studebaker convertible and applied his Hungarian irony and wit to the gross distortions of government press releases. The Martons were welcome at the American Embassy and played bridge with American diplomats. So, they must be spies. Thus the AVO, the ferocious secret police of the Hungarian Stalinist state, was ordered to accumulate sufficient evidence of espionage so that the Martons could be arrested. It took some time, but by 1955, the AVO had what it needed. Little wonder. As the head of the Hungarian state security archives would put it, many years later, "Everybody in your circle, whether your parents trusted or did not trust them, was informing on them." And so they were - the governess, the dentist, the colleague. Recruited, most often (though not always) intimidated, by the AVO, they reported every contact with the Marton family. Meanwhile, AVO surveillance teams followed the Martons, bugged their telephone and opened their mail, filling file after file with the details of Kati Marton's childhood. With an unforeseen, to say the least, result: "Enemies of the People," Kati Marton's seventh book, a powerful and absolutely absorbing narrative of her parents' journey - a series of escapes, from Hitler, from Stalin, eventually to America. Though if you think the AVO left them alone after that, you're wrong. Marton is a highly respected author and journalist. She has worked for ABC News as a foreign correspondent, reported for NPR, won many awards, headed the Committee to Protect Journalists and worked with the International Rescue Committee. So, some years after the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989, when the records of secret police operations in Hungary became available, Marton knew she had to read the file (one of the biggest, it turned out) on herself and her family. It was, after years of concern for the victims of totalitarian states, her turn. And what came next, "Enemies of the People," has all the magnetism and, yes, the excitement, of the very best spy fiction. But would that it were fiction. Marton's a gifted writer, and she knows about suspense. As you watch the AVO watching the Martons, as you see Endre Marton, a sophisticated and courageous man of culture, slowly crushed by interrogators in prison, you wonder when he'll begin to cooperate, to give them what they want: names, dates, acts of espionage. There's some of Arthur Koestler's "Darkness at Noon" in this book, and more than a little of "The Lives of Others," the German film about the Stasi, the East German secret police. Here is one Dr. Leo Benko - could Graham Greene have come up with a better name? - planted by the AVO on Endre Marton as his cellmate: "I do not perceive the slightest trace of regret in him. During our first days together he was quite worked up, but lately he is rather broken in spirit and apathetic and doesn't seem to notice anything around him. . . . In my opinion, . . . if he is still withholding any secrets, then, knowing his nature, there is only one way to force him to confess: by threatening his wife, and, even more, his children. I am certain, that if his wife and, even more, his children were placed in harm's way, there is not a secret that he would not disclose to save them." What Benko may not have known, and what Endre Marton certainly didn't know, was that his wife was in a cell just floors away. There are other villains - what else would you call him? - in this book, but there are also heroes. When the Martons are finally allowed to meet, in an office in the prison, an AVO major leaves the room, permitting them a moment of privacy (maybe). As Ilona Marton takes her husband's hands in hers, she whispers, in English, "Darling . . . the Americans will free us." And so they did. Though there are American villains here, including one in the embassy who spied for the Hungarians, American news media and diplomatic efforts did save their lives. But the true central character in "Enemies of the People" is surveillance itself - the operatives, the informants, the cameras and microphones - and what it becomes once committed to paper: "Surveillance record, Aug. 27, 1954: "10:05 a.m. [Marton] in a gray and black striped suit . . . and his two little girls left their home and got into car (license plate CA894) drove to Alkotas Utca 1, where we photographed him stepping out of the car. He then went into a stationery store with the little girls. Inside, he bought them school supplies. Ten minutes later, the little girls carrying their school supplies, Marton left the store. "11:43 Marton drove to Gerbeaud and, after finding a table, ordered ice cream. The three consumed the above while chatting. "12:20 p.m. Holding his children's hands, Marton walked back to his car. They drove to Vaci Ut 7 and entered a toy shop." There is more of this report, then Marton writes: "To the AVO I owe a long-ago summer day, washed away by dramatic events to come. It is now restored to me." If Marton was able to retrieve a sweet memory of her past, she was also to discover details, intimate details, of her parents' lives that she might well have preferred not to know. "A Pandora's box," the foremost historian of the AVO correctly called the Marton files. But, in the end, "Enemies of the People" becomes a treatise on human nature - at its best, at its worst - and Marton is enough of a good journalist, and a good human being, to take that for what it is: applaud the love and the heroism, deplore the cowardice and the cruelty, and go on with life. She doesn't dwell on her feelings, but it could not have been easy for her to undertake this project. Yet, as the narrative draws to a close, she understands that the twists and turns of Europe's brutal history can sometimes, with luck and courage, end well. And turn out to be, at least for Marton, and certainly for the reader, an honestly inspiring story. Alan Furst's most recent novel is "The Spies of Warsaw." A Trip to Washington D.C. for Falun Gong and Human Rights in China By Wen Chen This July 20, my husband Daniel, our 7-year-old daughter Sylvia, and I visited Washington D.C. It was a special trip to us, because July 20 is a very sad date to all Falun Gong practitioners. Twelve years ago on this date, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) ordered the crackdown on practitioners of Falun Gong - a peaceful body and mind exercise. Although Falun Gong was just introduced to the public in 1992, its health benefits and the principle of "Truth- Compassion-Tolerance" attracted over 70 million practitioners by 1999; these new members included many government officials as well as communist party members. Independent thinking has always been a threat to the communist party, as evidenced by the killing of over 80 million Chinese in the past century. Their use of media propaganda and armed forces to maintain authority is well- known. While both intellectuals and members of religious groups were a primary target of the Cultural Revolution (1966 - 1976), they never stopped cracking down on religious groups. These groups included Tibetan Buddhists, Christians, and in 1999, Falun Gong practitioners. These years of crackdown resulted in millions of Falun Gong practitioners detained in labor camps and jails. There are over 3,000 cases of death of Falun Gong practitioners documented by international human rights organizations, but this number is probably only the tip of the iceberg since the majority of death cases are not reported due to an information blockade by the CCP. I personally have experienced this blockade in information. I came to the U.S. in 1994 as a student, stalwart member of the CCP. I did not believe that the Tiananmen Massacre happened because we were told in China that nobody was killed; we were told that those students were manipulated by "foreign anti-China" forces and the students killed Chinese soldiers. I still remember myself arguing with several Caltech staff and postdocs in 1995. When they told me to watch the videos and pictures about the massacre, I told them that those were created by Hollywood. Finally, it was my turn to be the victim of the CCP. Both Daniel and I started the practice of Falun Gong in 1998 when we were graduate students in USC and Caltech, respectively -it was before the crackdown. At that time, Falun Gong (also known as Falun Dafa) was introduced and recommended to Chinese students by the Los Angeles Chinese Consulate as traditional Chinese culture. What attracted me to the practice was the principle of "Truth- Compassion-Tolerance" and the concept of self improvement through constantly looking inside whenever conflict happens. I greatly benefited from Falun Dafa. My bad temper disappeared and I became more considerate. My physical health also improved dramatically. I became a lot more efficient at work since I could focus better. In 2000, after letting go of anxiety about my career and marriage, which had bothered me for years, I smoothly got my Ph.D degree, found a good job, and met Daniel, who was to become my husband. When I watched the news fabricated by the CCP to slander Falun Gong, I realized that I had lived in a lie my whole life. I wished someone had told me the nature of the CCP before. I knew I should not let this happen again. I would tell the truth to as many people as possible. Thus we start to travel to DC every July to help tell the public what is happening in China and call for an end to the persecution. To little Sylvia, this is her first trip for human rights in China. Although I do not want to expose her to the atrocities I was lied to about, I also do not want to keep any truth from her; I want her to be able to make informed decisions as she develops her own belief system. On Thursday morning, Daniel joined over 1,000 Falun Gong practitioners in a public rally on Capitol Hill. During the event, more than 20 congressmen and senators, as well as representatives from Amnesty International and Freedom House spoke for the right to practice Falun Gong and the right to freedom from religious persecution. In the afternoon, my friend Lulu and I visited Congressman Adam Schiff's office. Lulu's husband is currently detained in China for posting flyers about Falun Gong. His human rights lawyer, Wang Yonghang, was sentenced to 7 years in prison for defending him in court. We had a meeting with Rep. Schiff's chief of staff Tim Bergreen. We gave Tim a brief update about freedom of the press in China, the Tuidang movement, and Chinese human rights lawyers, including the efforts of AI Group 22 to support lawyer Gao Zhisheng. Lulu talked about the case of her husband and his human rights lawyer. Congressman Schiff has asked the State Department to contact the Chinese authorities to inquire into the case. Tim said they would continue to help Lulu, her husband, and her lawyer. Friday morning, we joined a parade. The grand march included several themes: "The Beauty of Falun Dafa", "End the Persecution" and "Chinese People Abandon the CCP". We saw Falun Gong practitioners from many other countries. Actually we walked next to a group of practitioners from Korea. They wore beautiful traditional Korean costumes. Although they cannot speak English, they smiled to us all the time and showed us with gestures on how to hold our banners better. The parade began at the National Mall, traveled down Constitution Avenue, and ended at the Washington Monument, a 1.4 mile parade of colorful banners, traditional Chinese waist drummers, and the Celestial Marching Band. Before the parade started, more than 2,500 practitioners gathered together and did the Falun Gong exercise together at the National Mall. Friday night was the most touching moment during our whole trip. All three of us joined more than 3,000 Falun Gong practitioners for a big candlelight vigil at the Washington Monument. We meditated and sat in a pattern that formed Chinese characters spelling "Falun Dafa is good." In China, Falun Gong practitioners risked their lives to say this. When they face torture, this is their reply to the police for not giving up their belief. It was a great honor for us to be there as three little candle lights to form this Chinese phrase. Little Sylvia sat through the whole two hours, proudly, on her own spot that was in sight of but not next to me or Daniel; I can't believe it. After the candle vigil, she told me proudly that she took such a good care of her candle that the light did not go off at all. I'm so proud of my daughter, and I am so happy that Daniel and I can share our passion for truth and humanity with our daughters, one of whom could experience it in such an intimate way during the trip. Over the past decade, we witnessed changes among Chinese people in China and overseas concerning recognition of human rights. I remember ten years ago, when I distributed Falun Gong flyers in a Chinese market, dozens of deceived Chinese people surrounded me and insulted me and the Falun Gong as an "evil cult" and "anti-China". Nowadays, Chinese people come up to us and say, "Well done, I support you!" I know the tiny efforts of millions of people like us are creating history. PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE Gao Zhisheng by Joyce Wolf Vice-President Joe Biden visited China August 16-24. Geng He, wife of Group 22's adopted prisoner of conscience Gao Zhisheng, implored Biden to raise the issue of Gao's disappearance with Chinese authorities during his visit. Geng He said that Biden's visit coincides with the fifth anniversary of her husband's first disappearance into police custody on August 15, 2006. "Over the past five years he has disappeared into police detention no less than six times, and each time he was tortured. Each time that he has been kidnapped by the police, they have held him for a longer period. And each time, the torture has been worse." Geng He went on to say, "If my husband had been allowed to serve his three-year sentence 'safe and sound' in prison, we would at least have known where he was, and we should have been allowed regular visits and mail and phone communication." (Source: Chinaaid.org. http://tinyurl.com/3sxv8l2) Here is an excerpt form the U.S. Department of State August 17 press briefing: "MS. NULAND: Well, let me take this opportunity to again urge the Chinese Government to ensure that Gao Zhisheng is immediately released from custody and to clarify the details surrounding his case and his whereabouts. You know that the protection of human rights is a central part of President Obama's foreign policy, both in China and elsewhere. Vice President Biden will raise our concerns about the human rights situation throughout China on this visit, as we consistently do. We've repeatedly raised our concerns about Mr. Gao's whereabouts and well-being with the Chinese Government, and we've expressed our deep concern about the reports that he may have been tortured by security officials." (http://tinyurl.com/4ykbftd ) The Los Angeles Times reported on August 21 that Biden "gently prodded China on human rights." Let's hope that Biden's visit has some positive effect for Gao Zhisheng! http://tinyurl.com/4y2vv9f Please observe International Day of the Disappeared on August 30 by taking action for Gao Zhisheng. Amnesty USA has an online action for Gao, valid until Dec. 31. You can reach it by clicking http://tinyurl.com/3btmk26. VIOLATIONS AGAINST WOMEN by Cheri Dellelo A Call to End Sexual Violence in Haiti (from Madre.org) Last fall, the women's human rights group MADRE, along with the International Women's Human Rights Clinic at CUNY Law School, Institute for Justice and Democracy in Haiti, Bureau des Avocats Internationaux, Center for Constitutional Rights, Women's Link Worldwide, KOFAVIV, FAVILEK, and KONAMAVID, submitted a petition to a regional human rights judicial system calling for immediate action to protect women and girls facing sexual violence in Haiti's displacement camps. This petition included the demands of Haitian women for medical and psychological care for rape survivors, increased security and lighting in the camps and meaningful participation by grassroots women's groups in decisions about combating sexual violence in the camps where they reside. These demands, which the Commission endorsed in a ground-breaking decision in December 2010, offer a blueprint for responding to disaster in ways that protect women and girls against violence. The following site offers you the opportunity to sign an open letter to the Haiti government, International Donor States, and the Interim Haiti Recovery Commission demanding that these urgent steps be implemented by the Haitian government and with the support of the international community. http://tinyurl.com/3hp4zek Demand Justice for Rape Survivors in the Democratic Republic of Congo (from Amnestyusa.org) Two years ago, Secretary Clinton met with rape survivors in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo and promised to prevent and respond to the widespread sexual violence associated with the conflict there. Yet, recent research finds rape rates are higher than ever suspected, and emerging reports expose mass rapes affecting more than 100 women throughout the Eastern regions. In the face of such astounding injustice, the U.S. must keep its promises to the women of the Democratic Republic of Congo. At the following site, take action by urging Secretary Clinton to redouble U.S. commitment to help stop the violence and issue a progress report on her efforts to respond to sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. http://tinyurl.com/3pyaw9t Help Protect Human Rights Defender Lydia Cacho (from Amnestyusa.org) Lydia Cacho is a journalist and human rights defender who is based in Cancun, Quintana Roo state, southern east Mexico. She first received multiple threats and harassment after publishing a book in 2005, in which she exposed a child pornography ring which allegedly operated with the knowledge and protection of politicians and business people of the Quintana de Roo and Puebla states. She continued to receive threats in the following years, on some occasions in reprisal for her work as a journalist and as a human rights defender at a women's shelter in Cancun. In April, Cacho published Memoirs of a Scandal - the story of how Nacif, Kuri and other powerful men targeted her after the publication of her first book - and dedicated it to assassinated journalists. Then she began her current project, a book about the trafficking of women and girls in Mexico, which is a top destination for sex trafficking from countries like Colombia and Guatemala. In the wake of her recent work, she has received new death threats by email and telephone and there has been serious concern about her safety and security. Please take action on Cacho's behalf by sending the letter at the following site to Mexico's Attorney General. http://tinyurl.com/3lasrr9 The Whistleblower (from imbd.com and Wikipedia.org) Be sure to catch the movie The Whistleblower when it comes to a theatre near you this month. The plot: Based on the true story, policewoman Kathryn Bolkovac (played by Rachel Weisz) risks her job and her own safety to uncover and bring to light a wide-scale, child sex-slave and human-trafficking scandal involving a U.S. military contractor, Democro Corp (a pseudonym for the real world DynCorp), and the United Nations in post-war Bosnia. Watch the trailer here - http://youtu.be/al3anBiHwmI. AIUSA Women's Rights Group Now on Twitter Follow them at http://twitter.com/#!/AmnestyWomenRts. DEATH PENALTY NEWS by Stevi Carroll Summer's winding down and executions continue in the USA. In Oregon, Gary Haugen has volunteered to be executed. This means he waives his appeals in favor of lethal injection. Because the last execution in Oregon took place when Harry Charles Moore was executed on May 16, 1997, the Oregon State Penitentiary in Salem was on lockdown on Tuesday, August 16, from 4 PM to 7:30 PM while the staff went through a practice run, complete with a staff person playing the role of Mr. Haugen. Right now Mr. Haugen has a stay of execution because he has a mental competency hearing set for September 27 just to make sure he really knows what he's agreeing to. Troy Davis Troy Davis awaits execution. At the mid- August Amnesty Organizing City meeting, Jessica Farley said we need to be ready to blitz the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles with phone calls, faxes and emails. We'd like to set up a 'phone tree' rapid response team. If you are interested in being a part of this action, please let me know. We could start here by sending letters or making phone calls to State Board of Pardons and Paroles 2 Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive, SE Suite 458, Balcony Level, East Tower Atlanta, Georgia 30334-4909 Telephone: (404) 656-5651 At this time, other actions we can take include signing the petition for Troy at http://takeaction.amnestyusa.org/siteapps/ad vocacy/ActionItem.aspx?c=6oJCLQPAJiJUG&b =6645049&aid=12970 I know many of us have already signed this, so you might consider passing it along to other people you may know who would be interested. Two other groups of people being enlisted in Troy's campaign are religious leaders and legal professionals. If you know any religious leaders or people who may know religious leaders who may be moved to support Troy, please send them this link: http://salsa.democracyinaction.org/o/1576/p/ dia/action/public/?action_KEY=5928. One of the ministers I sent this plea to emailed me to say he'd signed the petition and forwarded it on to a dozen other clergy colleagues he knows around the country. Each little bit adds up, yes? Legal professionals can take action at http://takeaction.amnestyusa.org/site/c.jhKPI XPCIoE/b.6696673/k.602/Legal_Professionals_ Troy_Davis_needs_you/apps/ka/ct/contactus. asp?c=jhKPIXPCIoE&b=6696673&en=6pJBKLM nF5LKKVOqG4JGJXOHLjLOKZOCJmJMLWPIJtE. Troy's execution date is imminent. I found an interesting video at http://youtu.be/1DGqRFM443Y. And of course as those of you who are my Facebook friends know, links can be shared via FB thus we can reach a wider support group. Anthony Portantino On August 2, 2011, a group of us from the Los Angeles Coalition for Death Penalty Alternatives met with Assemblyman Anthony Portantino. Mr. Portantino admitted the death penalty is an issue he struggles with. On the one hand if someone he knows and loves is murdered, he wants the harshest justice served he can legally have, and on the other hand, he never wants an innocent person executed. He is also concerned that present death row inmates would not have their sentences carried out. He did agree to have his lawyers research SB 490, should the bill reach the point in the process at which it needs his attention, to help him reach a decision regarding his vote on it. Sadly, this visit for SB 490 may have little legislative value. SB 490 - and Cut This Lucas and I attended the Los Angeles Coalition for Death Penalty Alternatives Sunday, August 21. According to James Clarke, SB 490 isn't going to make it out of the appropriations committee. As of this writing, the California Taxpayers for Justice still has a petition in support of SB 490. You can go to to http://www.change.org/petitions/california- legislature-pass-sb-490-to-replace-the-death- penalty to support this bill; however, after the vote on Wednesday, August 24, you may be directed to take another action. Given the demise of SB 490, the next campaign for allowing Californians to vote on a death penalty related initiative will be a signature petition drive to take it to the ballot November 20, 2012. James said two million signatures are needed to qualify since many people who will sign will not be registered to vote or may sign multiple times. This initiative will NOT abolish the death penalty - that would require an amendment to the State constitution - but rather would make it so the state's district attorneys would prosecute cases with life without possibility of parole as the most stringent sentence. As more information about this initiative drive is available, I will keep you posted. While Governor Brown cannot abolish California's death penalty, he can convert all death sentences to life without parole. The Cut This: Death Penalty petition to Governor Brown is still available at http://salsa.democracyinaction.org/o/1265/p/ dia/action/public/?action_KEY=4602. Stays of Execution August 2011 2 Manuel Valle Florida 16 Brett Hartman Ohio 16 Bruce Ward Arkansas 16 Gary Haugen Oregon 18 Larry Swearingen Texas 23 Randall Mays Texas 30 Ivan Cantu Texas 31 Edward Edwards Ohio (died of natural causes) Executions July 2011 21 Andrew Grant DeYoung 37 Georgia Lethal Injection 3-drug w/pentobarbital 29 Robert Jackson III 38 Delaware Lethal Injection 3-drug w/pentobarbital August 10 Martin Robles 33 Texas Lethal Injection 3-drug w/pentobarbital 18 Jerry Jackson 30 Virginia Lethal Injection 3-drug w/pentobarbital GROUP 22 MONTHLY LETTER COUNT UAs 14 POC 4 DP 1 Total 19 To add your letters to the total contact email@example.com. Amnesty International Group 22 The Caltech Y Mail Code 5-62 Pasadena, CA 91125 www.its.caltech.edu/~aigp22/ http://rightsreaders.blogspot.com Amnesty International's mission is to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from discrimination, within the context of its work to promote all human rights.